Recruited: April 1941
Role: Circuit Organiser (F Section)
Circuits: URCHIN, SPINDLE
Codenames: Raoul, Michel
Fate: Captured, deported to Germany, survived
Peter Morland Churchill was born in Amsterdam in 1909. The son of the British consul there, he was sent to be educated at Malvern School and read Modern Languages at Cambridge, where he also played ice hockey at international level in 1932. After a spell as British pro-consul at Oran in 1934 he drifted through a number of jobs, before being commissioned into the Intelligence Corps in 1940.
Churchill was one of the French Section's early recruits, joining in April 1941. In January 1942 he was sent on his first mission, during which he met a charismatic artist named André Girard, the leader of a Resistance network called CARTE, based at Antibes on the Riviera. Girard had already come to the attention of SOE's local URCHIN network, which had reported CARTE's important links with many senior members of the French army. Very soon the British convinced themselves that Girard was capable of achieving great things, and agreed to send him more agents, arms and supplies.
In April, Churchill made another brief expedition to bring two wireless operators, Edward Zeff and Isidore Newman, to Antibes, then returned in August to become the head of a new liaison circuit called SPINDLE, which would work with CARTE to train Girard's men and carry out sabotage along the Cote d'Azur. To assist, Churchill also adopted two abandoned F Section agents, an Egyptian Jewish wireless operator named Adolphe Rabinovitch, and a French-born courier, Odette Sansom.
In November the Germans invaded the southern, unoccupied zone of France. This marked the beginning of the end for CARTE, which soon descended into chaos following a split between Girard and his chief of staff, Henri Frager. Churchill decided to relocate SPINDLE to the safety of St Jorioz in the Haute-Savoie, but while he and Girard flew to London for talks in March 1943 SPINDLE was infiltrated by Hugo Bleicher, one of the Germans' most successful spycatchers. Within hours of parachuting back on 15 April Churchill was arrested by Bleicher, who had tracked him and his courier Odette to a hotel in St Jorioz. Rabinovitch, based ten miles away at the village of Faverges, evaded capture.
Churchill and Odette were held by the Italians, then transferred to Fresnes prison in Paris. Despite Bleicher's attempts to get them to talk both remained silent, and in February 1944 Churchill was told he was being exchanged and transferred to Berlin: another captured agent had told Bleicher that Churchill was a relation of Winston Churchill, which had been enough to attract the attention of the SS (Churchill later reported that Bleicher had encouraged him to make the most of the connection, despite Churchill privately confessing to him that he was only distantly related to the prime minister).
The exchange was never made. Shortly after his arrival at Gestapo headquarters in the capital he was taken to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, a few miles north at Oranienburg, and placed in "Sonderlager A", a section outside the main compound reserved for a small number of special prisoners. Here he met several British officers including Harry "Wings" Day, one of the architects and survivors of the Great Escape; Churchill, mindful of his non-POW status, refused to help with their new tunnel plans (Day and four others made a successful breakout in September 1944 but all were quickly recaptured).
As the Allies approached Berlin in April 1945 Churchill was moved again, first to Flossenberg and then to Dachau, where he joined a motley bunch of generals, politicians, royalty, German anti-Nazis and other high profile prisoners lodged in the camp's brothel. The plan was to evacuate these Prominenten south into Austria, but after reaching Innsbruck they were fortunate to come under Wehrmacht rather than SS jurisdiction, which probably saved them from being executed. On 4 May they were liberated by American forces at a lakeside hotel in South Tyrol. After returning to London via Italy, Churchill was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO), and the Croix de guerre.
In 1947 he married Odette, who had survived torture and appalling treatment at Ravensbrück concentration camp. Their public profile was boosted by Jerrard Tickell's biography of Odette in 1949, followed by Herbert Wilcox's film adaptation, starring Anna Neagle as Odette and Trevor Howard as Churchill. Churchill wrote about his experiences shortly afterwards, in three volumes: Of Their Own Choice (1952), Duel of Wits (1953) and The Spirit in the Cage (1954). He and Odette also added their comments to Ian Colvin's English translation of Bleicher's own version of his wartime career, Colonel Henri's Memoirs (Bleicher later visited Churchill and tried to persuade him to take part in a magazine interview, an offer which Churchill refused).
In 1955 Churchill divorced Odette and married a former model, Irene Hoyle, in Nice a year later. He continued to write, publishing a novel based on the Glières maquis, By Moonlight (1958), and a guidebook for fellow British caravanners and tourists visiting the Cote d'Azur, All About the French Riviera (1960).
In truth, Churchill's wartime mission to forge CARTE into a useful weapon for the Allies had been a difficult if not impossible one, but criticism of Churchill's SOE career persisted after the war, and following the release of the film Odette in 1950 (in which he played a cameo role) several former resisters - including Francis Basin and André Girard - publicly attacked Churchill and Odette, questioning their right to be portrayed as heroes of the resistance (no doubt some of this indignation was motivated by jealousy and bad blood, particularly in the case of Girard). In 1966 the publication of M.R.D. Foot's official government history, SOE in France, revived the controversy: in reviewing their efforts Foot suggested that Churchill and Odette had lived a life of luxury on SOE's money and had accomplished little of military value. In 1969, Churchill won his libel case and later editions of SOE in France were revised.
In the late 1950s he settled in Le Rouret near Antibes - a spot he described as "the next best place to the Seychelles" - overlooking the coast he knew so well from his wartime days, and worked as an estate agent selling local property to British clients. He died in Cannes in 1972.Back to SOE Agent Profiles